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Toefl (Conditional Sentences)

Conditional Sentences (kalimat pengandaian) adalah kalimat yang mengatakan suatu harapan atau gambaran/ lamunan dalam bentuk kalmiat bersyarat”.
Pada umumnya kalimat pengandaian terdiri dari dua bagian yaitu “main clause” dan “if clause”. Di dalam “if clause‟ terkandung syarat – syarat yang harus di penuhi atas keadaan seperti yang terkandung di dalam main clause dapat terwujud. Karena itu, di sebut juga kalimat bersyarat.
Jenis-Jenis Conditional Sentence
1. Tipe pertama (possibility)
Bentuk pertama dari conditional sentence disebut probable condition yang artinya bahwa sesuatu akan mungkin terjadi pada waktu yang akan datang maupun sekarang kalau saatnya di penuhi.
If + Subject + Simple Present + Subject + Future Tense
atau
If + Subject + Future Tense + Subject + Future Tense
Contoh:
– If Betha comes, I will give her the message.
Jika betha datang saya akan sampaikan pesan itu padanya.
– If we arrive late, he will be angry with us
Jika kita datang terlambat, dia akan marah (tapi jika dia tidak datang terlambat maka dia tidak akan marah)
– He will not go to the picnic if it rains.
Dia tidak akan pergi piknik jika hari hujan
2. Tipe kedua (Unreal Present)
Bentuk kedua dari conditional sentence disebut improbable condition, yang artinya bahwa kejadian tersebut bertentangan dengan yang sebenarnya, karena ini merupakan lamunan/khayalan saja (contrary to fact)

If + subject + simple past … + subject + would + V-inf
atau
Subject + Would/ Might/ Could + Verb Inf …, If + Subject + Simple
Contoh:
– If I were rich I would give my money to the poor.
Seandainya saya kaya, saya akan memberikan uang saya pada orang miskin (makna sesungguhnya adalah “I am not rich so I don’t give my money to the poor” – saya tidak kaya jadi saya tidak memberikan uang saya ke orang miskin)
– If he smoked less, he wouldn‟t cough so much.
Seandainya dia mengurangi merokok, maka dia tidak batuk terus. (Makna sesungguhnya „‟he smokes much” maka dia akan batuk-batuk terus)
Dalam pengandaian tipe ke 2 penggunaan kata “if” bisa di hilangkan dengan menggunakan pola inversi, yaitu:
Contoh:
– Were he here, he would take care of our problem
Seandainya dia ada disini maka dia akan membantu menyelesaikan masalah. (Maka sesungguhnya “he is not here” dan “he will/ can/do not take care of our problem” dia tidak dapat membantu menyelesaikan masalah kita)
– Were we a movie star, I would be very famous
Seandainya saya seorang bintang saya akan sangat terkenal (Makna sebenarnya adalah “I am not a movie star and I am not famous” saya bukan seorang bintang film jadi saya tidak terkenal)
Note : Penggunaan kata were dalam tipe 2 digunakan untuk semua kata ganti orang sedangkan kata was tidak digunakan sama sekali.
3. Tipe ke – 3 (Past – Unreal Conditional)
Tipe ke – 3 menggambarkan suatu kejadian yang bertentangan dimasa lampau dan tidak ada harapan akan terlaksana karena merupakan lamunan masa lalu (impossible condition)
IF + SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT … + SUBJECT + (COULD/WOULD/MIGHT) + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE (V3)
atau

SUBJECT + (COULD/WOULD/MIGHT) + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE (V3), IF+ SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT…
Contoh:
– If I had known her number, I would have called her.
Seandainya saya tahu nomor teleponnya saya akan menelponnya (makna sesungguhnya adalah “I didn’t know her telephone number” and saya tidak pernah meneleponnya).
– She could have finished the exam, if she had had more time.
Dia akan dapat menyelesaikan ujiannya, seandainya dia memiliki banyak waktu. (makna sesungguhnya “she didn’t have enough time” dan dia tidak bisa menyelesaikan ujiannya).
Dalam pengandaian tipe 3, penggunaan kata “if” dapat di hilangkan dengan menggunakan pola kalimat inversi.
Had + Subject + Past Participle + Subject + Would + Have + Past Participle
Contoh:
Had I gone to the party, I would have met her.
Seandainya saya pergi ke pesta itu, saya akan bertemu dengannya. (makna sesungguhnya saya tidak pergi ke pesta itu “I didn’t go to the party” dan saya tidak bertemu dengannya).
EXERCISE FOR CONDITIONAL SENTENCE
1. …………, he would have been able to pass the exam.
(A) If he studied hard
(B) If he were studying to a greater degree
(C) If he studies more
(D) If he had studied more
(E) Were he studying hard
2. If it ………… more humid in the desert of southwest, the hot temperature would be unbearable.
(A) Be (D) were
(B) Is (E) will be
(C) Was
3. I would have checked my paper if I ………. more time.
(A) Have got (D) gets
(B) Had got (E) will go
(C) Got

4. If you listen to the question carefully, you ………. them easily.
(A) Are answering (D) have answered
(B) Will answer (E) would answer
(C) Answered
5. If I prepared the lesson, I ……… good mark.
(A) Will get (D) would get
(B) Would have got (E) had got
(C) Can get
6. If you use the visa card, we ………. you a discount
(A) Are giving (D) had not lent him
(B) Will give (E) would not have lent him
(C) Would give
7. Had I realized that Tim was a bad driver, I ……….. my car.
(A) Would not lent him (D) could have done
(B) Did not lent him (E) would do
(C) Will not lend him
8. “How was your test?”
“Not very good.” I ………. much better if I had not misread the directions for the last section.”
(A) Might do (D) could have done
(B) Must have done (E) would do
(C) Should do
9. Had he handed in the application he ………. last week.
(A) Would be allowed to join the interview test
(B) Was being allowed to join the interview test
(C) Would have been allowed to join the interview test
(D) He will have been allowed to join me interview test
(E) He was allowed to join the interview test
10. If we had known that she had planned to arrive today, we could have met her at the station. It means ……….
(A) We knew that she had planned to arrive today so we met at the station.
(B) We didn‟t know that she had planned to arrive today, however we met her at the station
(C) We knew that she had planned to arrive today although we didn‟t meet her at the station
(D) We didn‟t know that she had planned to arrive today so we didn‟t meet her at the station
(E) We knew that she had planned to arrive today, therefore we met her at the station

Sumber : http://cilad.unissula.ac.id/download/ModuleTOEFL.pdf

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haloo... my name is a saut hasibuan DIAM Seperti kata-kata, di dalam diam juga ada kekuatan. Diam bisa dipakai untuk menghukum, mengusir atau membingungkan orang. Tapi lebih dari segalanya, diam juga bisa menunjukkan kecintaan kita pada seseorang karena memberinya ”ruang”. Terlebih jika sehari-hari kita sudah terbiasa gemar menasehati, mengatur, mengkritik bahkan mengomel.

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